4._____Marx obtained his … The principle of utility or the principle of utilitarianism : I ought do that act which will bring about the greatest happiness (pleasure) for the greatest number of persons (the community). - Bentham taught him - GHP - greatest happiness principle - there is a "qualitative" difference between pleasures - says no intelligent human being would consent to being a fool -- humans have higher faculties that animals don't. Mill’s utilitarianism culminates in “The Greatest Happiness Principle.”(Cavalier) If I am asked what I mean by difference of quality in pleasures, or what one pleasure more valuable than another, merely as a pleasure, except its being greater in amount, there is but one possible answer. By "happiness," he understood a predominance of "pleasure" over "pain." Nature has placed mankind under the governance of two sovereign masters, pain and pleasure. VII.’ A measure of government (which is but a particular kind of action, performed by a particular person or persons) may be said to be conformable to or dictated by the principle of utility, when in like manner the tendency which it has to augment the happiness of the community is greater than any which it has to diminish it. and whether, when two men have said, “I like this,” and “I don’t like it,” they can (upon such a principle) have any thing more to say? Mill’s name for the claim that only happiness is valuable for its own sake is the “principle of utility.” This is ripe for confusion. Bentham's theory applied the principle of utility to individual acts and situations directly. It should seem that it had, by those who have not known what they have been meaning. Its purity, or the chance it has of not being followed by sensations of the opposite kind: that is, pains, if it be a pleasure: pleasures, if it be a pain. If there be, let him examine and satisfy himself whether the principle he thinks he has found is really any separate intelligible principle; or whether it be not a mere principle in words, a kind of phrase, which at bottom expresses neither more nor less than the mere averment of his own unfounded sentiments; that is, what in another person he might be apt to call caprice? Jeremy Bentham thinks it’s permissible to tell a small lie because in the long run Bentham is looking for the ultimate amount of happiness. Nor is this a novel and unwarranted, any more than it is a useless theory. Dangerous it therefore really was, to the interest—the sinister interest—of all those functionaries, himself included, whose interest it was, to maximize delay, vexation, and expense, in judicial and other modes of procedure, for the sake of the profit, extractible out of the expense. This way of thinking about morality finds its clearest expression in the philosophy of Jeremy Bentham (1748-1832). On account of the pleasures of all kinds which it enables a man to produce, and what comes to the same thing the pains of all kinds which it enables him to avert. What is the intrinsic value regarding Aristotle? How are we to do that? and whether the same thing is not right and wrong in the same place at the same time? The principle of utility, or "greatest happiness principle," forms the cornerstone of all Bentham's thought. Then, the interest (well-being) of the community is the sum of the interests of its members so government action is dictated by the principle of utility when, in total, it elevates happiness more than it diminishes it (p. 3). This want of a sufficiently manifest connexion between the ideas of happiness and pleasure on the one hand, and the idea of utility on the other, I have every now and then found operating, and with but too much efficiency, as a bar to the acceptance, that might otherwise have been given, to this principle. 1-2 Objections to Utility (a) Bentham is rightly called the Partriarch & the chief exponent of the theory of utilitarianism. To give such proof is as impossible as it is needless. Let him settle with himself, whether he would wish to discard this principle altogether; if so, let him consider what it is that all his reasonings (in matters of politics especially) can amount to? In the first case, let him ask himself whether his principle is not despotical, and hostile to all the rest of human race? First off I’ll talk to you about Mr. Bentham. 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Originals: Classic Readings in Western philosophy, Next: John Stuart Mill – on,!