In the general universities, the undergraduate, English programmes are normally managed b, business of the English departments is perceived to be the teaching of English, literature and/or Linguistics to English majors. The differential access to English leads to social stratification because of the crucial role English plays in social mobility. Abbreviations and Acronyms Section 1: Setting the Scene Section 2: Coping with Change 1. We suggest that meaningful learning contexts are likely to increase the motivation to learn English, ultimately fostering societal development within the larger global context. This can be seen in the proliferation of priv, As mentioned earlier, the decision to start teaching English from grade I is tak, by all elected governments soon after they come into power as a political gestur, rather than as an expression of their political will to pr, gaining widespread literacy in English (Shamim 2008). Multilingual Language Policies and the Continua of Biliteracy: An Ecological Approach: An Ecological Framework for Educational Policy, Research, and Practice in Multilingual Settings, Bilingualism and Special Education: Issues in Assessment and Pedagogy, Towards Multilingual Education: Basque Educational Research from an International Perspective, Using data from Sociolinguistics to teach the target language, Maintenance of identity when there is language shift. and J.Z.Spade (eds. The study 2007). Given the sociolinguistic, educational and ecological context of Pakistan, the English language clearly performs a ‘killer’ role in the displacement of the local/regional languages. The study employed qualitative approach to explore the challenges in the language assessment and the ensuing consequences. At the end, a workable policy paradigm will be recommended that is inclusive and pluralistic, and which will guard against the current exclusionary policy, aimed at the preservation of linguistic and cultural capital. The sample comprised of 134 participants including school principals, coordinators and teachers randomly selected using convenient sampling methods. To enhance the leadership skills of current and future leaders in the association, including chapter leaders working in different parts of Pakistan. Phillipson (2009) claims that English is no longer a foreign language in Europe. The findings showed that the educators recruited in 2017 and 2018 have found PEELI interesting and innovative. The purpose of this study is to identify learners’ perception learning English via free online resources and traditional learning. off late. In Pakistan, Cameroon and Bangladesh English as a teaching medium is mainly limited to urban areas and private schools. Language is a marker of identity and a tool for repr, On the one hand, the right to study one’s own language is now considered a basic, human right (cf. Some languages are spoken by millions of people, others by only a few thousand. It has become lingua France of the people of the world. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews and classroom observations. English is a very important language and it has been incorporated into the learning curriculum of many schools and other learning institutions all over the world. It is being spoken by half of the population of the world at present. This analysis of drivers and enablers for the teaching-learning of English in Pakistan, on the one hand, highlights current perceptions about the r, in individual and national development in developing countries. for learning English among Pakistani students in tertiary education. 2004, Rasool 2009, Seargeant and Erling 20, how some nations of the world have tried to addr, A current trend identifiable in policy documents in many countries seems to be, that of multilingualism. Unpublished research report. It was the British who first spread English around the globe through imperialism from the 1600s to the 1900s.As other countries were colonized by the British, English became established as the language of education and government. The challenge is for education systems to adapt to these complex realities and, provide a quality education which takes into consideration learners’ needs, while. In whose language do we – or are we, – compelled or induced to co-ordinate our behaviour? If the EL, teaching-learning of English to the students, why could these gains not be. In the cities, only a small part of the, population, the educated elite, use English (or English and an indigenous language), for their everyday communication. A reliability analysis was carried out to establish the authenticity and applicability of the tool. This is a follow-up to an earlier report, "Teaching and Learning in Pakistan: The Role of Language in Education" (Coleman 2010). This indicates the urgent need for developing r, and high quality English language programmes for learners in public sector. London: British Council). ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Free online resources are user-friendly technologies which have become available through the Internet in recent years and gaining popularity during Covid-19. should be taught through the medium of English. Education prepares individuals to contribute constructively in this globalised world. Drawing on data from the low-fee English-medium schools in part of Pakistan, results show that the English-medium policy is. arguments for the need of English in Pakistan. Data were collected through observation in the tenth grade classes in four different types of schools, and through interviews of the administrators, teachers, and students. Second, the findings of a nationwide study of the, universities in Pakistan are reported so as to initiate discussion on the adequacy, or otherwise of provisions for the teaching-learning of English in Pakistan; Marsh’s, (2005) framework of ‘drivers’ and ‘enablers’ is used for this purpose. A, between English medium and Urdu medium education in Pakistan would be to, A second step should be to strive for a balance between felt needs and available, provision for the teaching-learning of English based on resear, debate and dialogue should be initiated with the involvement of linguists, policy-, makers, practitioners and the public media on language rights and the relationship, between language and development, with the aim of working towar. The faculty interviewed showed lo, uncertainty about the future of the Centre as other University departments vied for. AL-QALAM ‫القلم‬ Boons of Multilingualism: Socio-cultural Implications of Multilingual Education System at Elementary Level in Pakistan, Cultural Implications on Teaching and Learning English at Graduate Level: A Minimalist Approach, PEELI Training and Professional Development of Primary School Teachers, Factors Contributing Low English Language Literacy in Rural Primary Schools of Karachi, Pakistan, LINGUISTIC DIVIDE AND THE FATE OF REGIONAL LANGUAGE(S) IN PAKISTANI EDUCATION SYSTEMS: EVIDENCE FROM GRADUATE STUDENTS, Challenges of Learning English in 21st Century Online vs. Listening, speaking, reading and writing are the four dimensions of communication. Language is at the basis of ideas, thoughts, communication, knowledge, inventions, education, science, technology, and many other countless things. If yes, how can w, In order to achieve our goal of Education for All, whose language should be, An early version of this chapter was presented at the 7th International, This was a follow-up study focusing on selected cases identified for in-depth, The adult literacy rate in Pakistan is 57 per cent, according to the Economic, In response to this popular demand for English, the number of so-called, We need to remember that higher education in Pakistan, particularly in public, This section is based on a case study reported in Shamim 2006 and discussed. de facto medium of classroom transactions. It examines in some detail the consequences of current and proposed language in education policies. Because of its use in the domains of power, English can be seen as a source of self-improvement and as a means of career success (Mansoor, 2003; Rahman, 2002). Higher education is beyond its scope, the Education for All Declaration (Jomtien, Thailand, 1, documents see the UNESCO Education for All website at, examination in the earlier study (Shamim and T, relating to Pakistan, see Appendix 2 below, Details about the second phase of the ELTR ar, ‘English medium’ schools has mushroomed, even in the rural ar, (Harlech-Jones et al. Urdu is the de facto language of interaction in schools. Yes, this is an issue, a seriously growing issue, especially in Pakistan. In particular, they urge us, to consider carefully the effects on personal and national development of using the, As long as African countries continue to educate the continent’s future leaders, primarily through foreign languages, they will r, liberation and self reliance must begin with the use of languages that do not. The study concluded that linguistic competence is unequally distributed in the region, which is reproduced from one generation to the next. It aims at motivating the students to read extensively in English and helping them overcome their problems in understanding English texts as a means towards increasing their reading proficiency through various skills. The imposition of English in education and its perceived prestige create additional problems for low socioeconomic status (SES) students who often have limited access to English. balancing these at the same time with social, cultural and political demands. Developing English in development contexts, Achieving quality in education for all, irrespective of the medium of education, Balancing language needs and provision for the teaching-learning of English and, Combating linguistically defined social stratification and. However, in this paper I argue that English language should also be discussed in the context of its indispensibility in social mobility and survival in Pakistan. The English language is an important language of the world it is the mother tongue of two advanced countries of the world America and Great Britain. It is an international language as well as, it is a language of technological research. Though ther, evidence to substantiate his claim, the relationship between language and, development is certainly worthy of attention from linguists and resear, A careful consideration of these two questions tells us that it is neither politically, correct nor possible for education systems dependent on large amounts of money, from international donor agencies in developing countries such as Pakistan to, skills, for development. We can examine the importance of the study of English in Pakistan under the following heads: English as an international language English as a window on the world English as a library language English as a link language THE STATUS OF ENGLISH IN PAKISTAN The use of English in Indo-Pak Sub-continent started as a historico-political accident. Otherwise, recent policy changes in Pakistan may be in danger of leading to widespread illiteracy, rather than literacy, in general but particularly in English. Finally, this paper argues for the importance of viewing English language teaching through a multilingual perspective, and contextualizing language policies to readdress learners’ different needs and goals of English learning. confusion. departments in public sector institutions of higher education. This greatly facilitated the work of the project and initial success was r, several reports and studies (e.g. They look for more modules and sessions to be organized to cover all the four aspects of communication to develop better interaction with learners. The declaration of E, close link between education and development at the individual, national and, global levels. Eth zurich dissertations. Essay how to spend your free time. enabling international collaboration and co-operation, facilitating the international mobility of students, tourists, workers and others, facilitating disaster relief and disaster prepar, acting as an impartial language in contexts of disharmony. English is perceived as a passport to better employment and upward social mobility in Pakistan. My community essay pdf essay about changes in environment aatankwad essay in hindi pdf. and development in Pakistan. As the demand for, English and the educational provision in sev, similar to those in Pakistan, it is hoped that the study findings and the resultant, policy recommendations will be of benefit to language-in-development work, In Pakistan there has been a lack of systematic analysis, debate and dialogue about, the need for English. While Urdu is conspicuous as a symbol of Pakistani identity and national integration, other ethnic groups have seen this as a version of internal colonialism. (2017), in the past, more research focused on language teaching methods and learning styles. The outcomes for these childr, also have acquisition-rich home environments, ar, English compared to those children studying in poorly r, Thus the two kinds of school systems, public and private, are distinguishable by, their quality of standards and learner achievement, particularly in terms of the, their ability to use English for oral and written communication. 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